Human respiratory syncytial virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, and current vaccine approaches
|Collection Location||Koleksi E-book & E-Journal Perpustakaan Pusat Unila|
|Edition||Vol. 37, Issue. 10|
|Author(s)||Taleb, Sara A...[et al.]
Respiratory syncytial virus continues to pose a serious threat to the pediatric populations worldwide. With a genomic makeup of
15,200 nucleotides, the virus encodes for 11 proteins serving as envelope spikes, inner envelope proteins, and non-structural and
ribonucleocapsid complexes. The fusion (F) and attachment (G) surface glycoproteins are the key targets for neutralizing antibodies.
The highly variableGwith altered glycosylations and the conformational alternations of F create challenges for vaccine development.
Themetastable F protein is responsible for RSV-host cell fusion and thus infectivity. Novel antigenic siteswere identified on this form
following its stabilization and solving its crystal structure. Importantly, site ø displays neutralizing activity exceeding those of post-Fspecific
and shared antigenic sites, such as site II which is the target for Palivizumab therapeutic antibody. Induction of high
neutralizing antibody responses by pre-F immunization in animal models promoted it as a major vaccine candidate. Since RSV
infection is more serious at age extremities and in individuals with undermining health conditions, vaccines are being developed to
target these populations. Infants below three months of age have a suppressive immune system, making vaccines’ immunogenicity
weak. Therefore, a suggested strategy to protect newborns from RSV infection would be through passive immunity of maternal
antibodies. Hence, pregnant women at their third trimester have been selected as an ideal target for vaccination with RSV pre-F
vaccine. This review summarizes the different modes of RSV pathogenesis and host’s immune response to the infection, and
illustrates on the latest updates of vaccine development and vaccination approaches.
Keywords RSV . Pathogenesis . Vaccine . Fusion glycoprotein . Antibodies
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