Diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori infection: ideals, options, and limitations
|Collection Location||Koleksi E-book & E-Journal Perpustakaan Pusat Unila|
|Edition||Vol. 38, Issue 1|
|Author(s)||Sabbagh, Parisa...[et al.]
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resides in the stomach, colonizes gastric epithelium, and causes several digestive system diseases.
Several diagnostic methods utilizing invasive or non-invasive techniques with varying levels of sensitivity and specificity are
developed to detect H. pylori infection. Selection of one or more diagnostic tests will depend on the clinical conditions, the
experience of the clinician, cost, sensitivity, and specificity. Invasive methods require endoscopy with biopsies of gastric tissues
for the histology, culture, and rapid urease test. Among non-invasive tests, urea breath test and fecal antigen tests are a quick
diagnostic procedure with comparable accuracy to biopsy-based techniques and are methods of choice in the test and treatment
setting. Other techniques such as serological methods to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori can show high
accuracy as other non-invasive and invasive biopsies, but do not differentiate between current or past H. pylori infections.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an emerging option that can be categorized as invasive and non-invasive tests. PCR method
is beneficial to detect H. pylori from gastric biopsies without the need for the cultures. There is no other chronic gastrointestinal
infection such as H. pylori with a set of comparable diagnostic methodologies. Despite the availability of multiple diagnostic
methods, it remains unclear on the choice of any one method as the gold standard for detecting H. pylori infection, especially in
epidemiological studies. In this work, we review the principal diagnostic methods used to detect H. pylori infection and their
advantages and disadvantages, and applications in clinical practice.
Keywords Helicobacter pylori . Characteristics of infection . Diagnosis . Invasive tests . Non-invasive tests
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