Update on laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis

Collection Location Koleksi E-book & E-Journal Perpustakaan Pusat Unila
Edition Vol. 38, Issue 1
Call Number
ISBN/ISSN 1435-4373
Author(s) Saidin, Syazwan
Othman, Nurulhasanah
Noordin, Rahmah
Subject(s) Biomedicine
Classification NONE
Series Title
GMD E-Journal
Language English
Publisher Springer
Publishing Year 2019
Publishing Place Switzerland
Collation
Abstract/Notes Abstract
Amoebiasis, an enteric protozoan disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is a public health problem in many developing
countries, causing up to 100,000 fatal cases annually. Detection of the pathogenic E. histolytica and its differentiation from the
non-pathogenic Entamoeba spp. play a crucial role in the clinical management of patients. Laboratory diagnosis of intestinal
amoebiasis in developing countries still relies on labour-intensive and insensitive methods involving staining of stool sample and
microscopy. Newer and more sensitive methods include a variety of antigen detection ELISAs and rapid tests; however, their
diagnostic sensitivity and specificity seem to vary between studies, and some tests do not distinguish among the Entamoeba
species. Molecular detection techniques are highly sensitive and specific and isothermal amplification approaches may be
developed into field-applicable tests; however, cost is still a barrier for their use as a routine laboratory test method in most
endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis of extraintestinal amoebiasis faces challenges of lack of definitive detection of current
infection and commercially available point-of-care tests. For both types of amoebiasis, there is still a need for highly sensitive and
specific tests that are rapid and cost-effective for use in developing countries where the disease is prevalent. In recent years, new
molecules of diagnostic value are being discovered and new tests developed. The advances in ‘omics’ technologies are enabling
discoveries of new biomarkers that may help distinguish between different infection stages.
Keywords Amoebiasis . Entamoeba histolytica . Entamoeba dispar . Laboratory . Diagnosis
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