Management in Antiquity: Part 1 – The Binds of Geography

Collection Location Koleksi E-book & E-Journal Perpustakaan Pusat Unila
Call Number
Author(s) Bowden, Bradley
Classification NONE
Series Title
GMD E-Book
Language English
Publisher Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publishing Year 2019
Publishing Place Switzerland
Abstract/Notes In this first chapter on management in antiquity, we provide an overview of the
different types of economic and managerial systems that existed in Europe and
the Mediterranean Basin between 4000 BC and AD450. Within what we call the
“civilized frontier” (Egypt, North Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean
littoral, and Europe west of the Rhine), we can detect three types of economies:
those based on irrigated agriculture (Mesopotamia and Egypt), dry-land wheat
farming (southern Europe and the Middle Eastern hill-country) and maritime
commerce (Greece, Phoenicia, Carthage). Beyond the “frontier” were societies
constructed around either pastoral activity or subsistence agriculture. Despite
their achievement, none of these societies proved capable of breaking the
shackles imposed by geography and a preindustrial technological base. In all
societies, the bulk of the population lived from the land. Even in Rome, the most
sophisticated society of antiquity, living standards for all but a tiny elite were
barely above subsistence. In no society can see effective systems of management
directed towards a competitive market economy. In the final analysis, the managerial
record of antiquity is one of failure rather than enduring achievement
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